Each AOS is informed by the activities of Thematic Working Groups (TWGs), normally (co-)led by members of the AOS Scientific Committee. Typically a Summit addresses 4–6 themes building on recommendations and outcomes from previous events.
TWGs are organized in advance to further develop Summit themes and related activities as deemed appropriate, and to provide relevant recommendations that feed into the Summit Statement.
Several subjects have persisted over the history of the AOS, and are iterated upon when developing specific themes and TWGs for an upcoming Summit. These include: